Early Universe Fast Tracked Carbon Water Life Forms

Robert Zwilling

Well-Known Member
Jun 12, 2018
The Milky Way has a starry background, eating other galaxies and has stars side by side in the outer bands that have no metal in them and stars with metal in them. Stars with metal in them formed from star dust from older exploded stars. Some estimates put the starting date for the Milky Way between 200 to 800 million years after the Big Bang, but we're so close to it that we can't see any of the light from the beginning of the universe in it. Which is why we need Hubble and Webb and other space based telescopes to be able to view the objects farthest away from us.

The now oldest known galaxy, JADES-GS-z14-0, is very unusual, and is dated at 290 million years after the big bang, which itself is beginning to look more like a sign post along the way instead of a starting point for everything. The next oldest galaxy, JADES-GS-z13-0, is 325 million years after the big bang, it is small, 170 light-years, and not really unusual at all. The earliest galaxies existing right after the big bang were expected to be small because supposedly they hadn't enough time to form a massive galaxy yet. Because they were small galaxies, they wouldn't have had many stars go through the full cycle, creating star dust filled with a variety of heavy elements.

JADES-GS-z14-0 is massive, possibly hundreds of millions of times the mass of our sun, very large in size for the time we are seeing it in, and very bright, almost 1700 light-years across, 10 times the size of JADES-GS-z13-0. Spectrum analysis indicate it's stardust has a lot of oxygen in it, which would have come from stars going through the full life cycle which shouldn't be the case according to conventional thinking. It takes several generations of stars before they start making oxygen. Simple galaxies were supposedly forming back then with stars that did not have metals in them. JADES-GS-z14-0 could have cycled through 500,000 stars when see it.

A big question is where did all the oxygen come from. It was thought that the early galaxies would take some time before creating enough stardust to create new stars that would be creating oxygen when they blew up. Maybe oxygen and carbon are universal building blocks that inevitably end up automatically forming life early on in the universe.

Another discovery by the Hubble Telescope was GN-z11, a galaxy that formed 400 million years after the Big Bang. When discovered in 2016 it was the farthest and oldest known object from Earth with the farthest and oldest black hole in it. What has made it famous is that it is exceptionally rich in nitrogen for a galaxy that old.

In 2022, several galaxies were found that were just 500 to 700 million years after the big bang. The galaxies were somehow as mature as our 13-billion-year-old Milky Way galaxy is now. At the time it was thought that these were unusually large galaxies for being 500 to 700 million years after the big bang. The mass of stars within each of these objects totals to several billion times larger than that of our sun, according to the research. One of them in particular might be as much as 100 billion times our sun’s mass. For comparison, the Milky Way contains a mass of stars equivalent to roughly 60 billion suns.
4 years ago Galaxy C1-23152 was discovered. It grew to 200 billion suns in just 500 million years. The is 1.8 billion years after the Big Bang. At the peak of its star formation, C1-23152 was cranking out hundreds of stars every year, compared to the 10 to 20 new stars a year the Milky Way creates.
One theory to explain how there could be so many more stars being created than expected was because during the period after the big bang the rate of star creation could be up to 1,000 times greater than it is today. It's thought that massive galaxy formation might have been common place right after the big bang. The Milky Way is estimated to only be creating 10 to 20 new stars a year now

Regarding evidence of excessive star creation, the dates are 1.8 billion years, 500-700 million, and now 290 million years after the Big Bang. A couple of possibilities exist. Perhaps the date for the Big Bang is earlier than thought. The current date is 13.77 billion years ago. The WMAP mission from 2001 through 2010 produced a map of the Cosmic Microwave Background, a “baby picture” of the Universe. It showed that massive galaxies should have started 200 million years after the Big Bang. Until JADES-GS-z14-0 was discovered, the earliest massive galaxies were 500 to 700 million years after the Big Bang. JADES-GS-z14-0 seems to validate the idea that massive galaxies were forming early on. The idea is that big stars were rapidly forming and exploding soon after creating heavier elements.

The first stars were composed of light weight elements, which fused together to form large amounts of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, the building blocks of life as we know it. This could indicate that our carbon-oxygen-nitrogen based life form could be a fairly common, standard format for life throughout the universe.
Add the idea that after newly formed planets cool off, water that is contained under the crust in various forms is squeezed out and automatically condenses on the surface. The water combined with the elements, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, is all that is needed to start the planet eventually producing life, possibly similar to what we know.

Perhaps the big bang is just part of a series of bangs one after another such as found in an ordinary combustion engine.
NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope is JWST. One of the research groups using the JWST is called JADES, short for JWST Advanced Deep Extragalactic Survey.
For the age of the universe, there is another estimate at 27 billion years put forth by Rajendra Gupta, adjunct professor of physics at the University of Ottawa. He says using that age there is no need for dark matter or dark energy and would explain the very early large size galaxies. Both Gupta and the WMAP reissue their findings periodically in the lack of concrete data that shows what actually happened.