I've tried to search for this story with no success, with both plot searches and title searches. I can't remember the author, but I do remember it was in an anthology book which I bought mid-70's used, so it was probably written and published in the 60's. The plot in brief: the government develops a humanoid species which is only about 6 inches tall, called short ones, as a tool to study social psychology and cultural development. The short ones live in a constructed "world" where they are the only intelligent species that exists. Humans can communicate with them via a psychic link, enabled by short ones anatomy which uses a copper spike as a spine, and the short ones look at those who communicate with humans as prophets of the Gods. Only certain people are selected to be contacts with short ones. The story describes the training period of Hiller, one person selected to communicate with the short ones. Hiller is at first timid in his efforts, and because he wants to keep a light hand and not cause too many waves in short one society, he abandons his short one prophet when a despotic king attempts to destroy all prophets and all talk of any gods other than himself. Hiller's prophet is eventually caught and taken in for public execution. The king orders him to be split in half, and to be especially cruel, has him split in half from the belly down so that he suffers. With his dying breaths, the prophet curses the king, and Hiller transmits a blast of psychic energy through him which obliterates the king. Hiller passes the training, and the story ends with the short ones making Hiller into a True God, one who says little but when he speaks shakes the world. Ring any bells with anyone? I'd love to find a copy again, but of course Googling "short ones" doesn't generate the best results.